| This paper purports to show that the fourth (plasma-) state of matter is in need of clarification. Plasma should allow not only the understanding of the pressure in the stars but also the ejection, form, and energy of filaments. However, nobody understands why the strongest jets are ejected at gravity of the heaviest black holes. Attraction cannot cause repulsion. The solution is the introduction of a new concept: the fifth state of matter. This shows the electric origin, form, energy of the solar- and almost all filaments and jets. Bodies in the plasma state of matter consist of particles which move thermally i.e. in zigzag. Therefore, the thermal laws of phyiscs are valid. However, bodies in this fifth state of matter, e.g. like the solar corona, consist of particles which move non-thermally i.e. parallel to each other. Therefore the thermal laws of physics are not valid. For example the solar corona radiates no heat, only cold light like fluorescent lamps. Its iron ions are made electrically, not thermally. In Bose-Einstein Condensate matter has almost zero energy. This state of matter should therefore get the name: zero state of matter instead of “fifth state of matter”.|
Solid-, liquid- and gaseous states of water have been known for millennia. All three consist of the same molecules of H2O in "boomerang" form. Their only difference is their motion-energy. Ice bodies have the smallest energy in their "zigzag"-motion; therefore they have a crystal-form in which the boomerang-molecules oscillate. However, they do not leave their positions in the grid.
These boomerangs have the highest energy in steam, where these H2O- molecules move in all directions. This strong zigzag-motion quickly pours over dishes, tableware, clothes.
In the last two centuries, the heat-energy of motors could be calculated. This science is clear today. Water also plays an important role in the explosion of volcanoes. Almost all "boomerangs of water" break, moreover, the three atoms of a boomerang: the two hydrogen and one oxygen atoms start to ionize, i.e., to loose electrons due to the strong zigzag-motion. The name of this relatively newly discovered state of matter is plasma. In the science of heat, plasma is made by heat-energy. Although it is the common opinion that the largest part of the Universe consists of plasma (in the depth of the stars), science is not unified in dealing with plasma. The ionisation described above can be generated not only thermally in volcanoes but also electrically in mercury-lamps and sodium-lamps.
In all these four states of matter, molecules or particles move in zigzag. The strongest zigzag-motion comes into existence in the supernova. In this plasma-explosion, particles fly in all possible directions. However, detectors can find oxygen ions in the cosmic rays which are thousand million times quicker than those from the supernova. We can say: a "Non-Thermal Universe sends" these particles. A "Thermal Universe" is too weak for this. These cosmic ray particles can only be accelerated by the electric repulsion, not by zigzag. Older TVs have such an electron-filament flying in a vacuum creating the picture on the screen.
It is the direction of the repulsion which causes the only direction of the movement in this filament state of matter. All electrons fly parallel to the filament axis. They do not need a "magnetic tube" to remain in a filament form because these electrons are not in a plasma state of matter but in a filament state of matter. The electric charge of these electrons keeps the matter together in a filament-form. In other words: the pinch-effect (the magnetic attraction among parallel electric currents) keeps the particles in filament-form.
Although the first filament was seen by Carrington on the Sun in 1863, the filament state of matter is almost unknown in astronomy, even unknown in physics! Also the polar aurora is clearly not caused by heat, its filaments are not understood because of the lack of the simple concept of the filament state of matter. Almost all filaments are in the filament state of matter i.e. their particles move in one direction and not in all directions as in the four "thermal states of matter" i.e. in solid, liquid, gas or plasma states of matter.
No measurements, no calculations, no congresses and no supercomputers, only a new clear concept is now necessary: bodies are in a filament state of matter when their electrically emitted (electrically charged) particles fly parallel to the filament-axis. We can forget all contradictory and complicated concepts of the "plasma-physics" and the complicated "corona-problems!"
Dipl. Phys. Dr. Ing. László Körtvélyessy
Rácz Aladár 146. H-1121 Budapest, Hungary
Tel: +36 1 492121